Introduction To Epidemiology (401076)

Introduction To Epidemiology (401076).

Introduction To Epidemiology (401076)

This assignment is based on the learning objectives and concepts in Topic 1. There are a total of 46 marks and this assignment will contribute 20% towards the total assessment for this subject.
Your assignment should be typed, with adequate space left between questions. Assignments should be submitted via vUWS with cover sheet (see specific instructions relating to Assignment submission Learning guide on vUWS).

Be as brief as possible in your answers, and use the number of marks for a question as a guide to how much to write. No answers need to be longer than a few short sentences or short paragraphs.

Remember to save your assignment as:

Remember to submit your final version in the final Turnitin link. Leave the questions in the body of text as is (with the quotation mark it will not be included as similarities).    

Q1. “In a health survey in a city neighbourhood 431 people aged 65 or above were examined, 52 were found to have congestive heart failure. Each person was examined once, but the examination was staggered over a period of two years (given the sample was relatively big n=431)”
a.    “What was the prevalence of congenital heart failure?”  [ Mark 2]

b.     “Is it a point or period prevalence?”  [ Mark 2]
 
Q2.  “This table presents the incidence rate IR (cumulative) and population size for two regions”
    Region A    Region B
Population  size    10,000    5000
IR of gastroenteritis     10 per 100    5 per 100

“Which of the following statements are True (if Any) – explain your answer by calculation if needed”
a.    There were the same number of cases in both regions      [mark 1]

b.    There were twice as many cases in region A then region B  [mark 1]

c.    The risk of incurring the disease during the year was about the same for individual in region A as for those in region B [mark 1]
 
d.    The risk of incurring the disease during the year was twice as high for individuals in region A as for those in region B.  [mark 1]

Q3 – “What will be the incidence rate of region A and Region B combined? [mark 4]

Q4. “In an army base, where there is a complete change of personnel every 3 months and the total base is always 1000 (i.e., every 3 months 1000 new soldiers arrive and 1000 leave). It was found that 2000 soldiers incurred syphilis every year. What is the yearly cumulative incidence of syphilis in this base? “  [mark 2]


Q5. “Now assume that in each three-monthly batch of 1000 soldier there were 250 soldiers who contracted syphilis after exactly one month (let’s say on the payday) and another 250 who did so after precisely two months”.  
a.    Calculate the sum total of the soldiers’ period of exposure to risk (person-time) for use as denominator [mark 2]

 
b.    Calculate the person-time incidence rate [mark 2]



Q6. “The following table depicts the age distribution and the number of HIV/AIDs cases that exist in each age group”
    Intravenous drug (IVD) users    Homosexual (men to men sex)
Age group (years)    Population size    # HIV/AIDs cases    Population size    # HIV/AIDs cases
18-30    55    4    112    30
31-55    8    1    141    32
56+    2    0    95    15
                

a.    “Compare the crude prevalence of HIV/AIDS between the two groups? (Show the process of calculation not just one final number)”  [mark 2]


b.     “Compare the age-specific prevalence between the groups, is there any pattern?”  [mark 2]



c.     “Would it be correct to compare the crude prevalence between the two group?  Explain why yes or why not  (no more than 60 words)”    [mark 2]
d.     “Compute the direct standardised prevalence of HIV/AIDs for intravenous drug users using the age distribution of homosexuals. Express your results in percent”.  [4 marks]



e.    Summarise the differences between the crude prevalence and the age-standardised rate. (no more than 100 words) 2 marks



Q7.  “A random sample of middle-age sedentary overweight males was selected from four census tracts in four countries, and each man was examined for coronary artery disease. All those having the disease were excluded from the study. All other were randomly assigned to Mediterranean diet group, which followed a 2-year program of this diet, or to a control group, which received educational materials about healthy lifestyle. Both groups were observed half-yearly for any difference in incidence of coronary artery disease”.

a)    Study type/design [2 marks]:



b)    Key feature(s) what led your decision of the study design from this text: [2 marks]


Q8.  “The hypothesis that meat consumption can increase the risk of colon cancer was investigated in 22 countries.  Investigators checked the sales per-capita of meat (e.g., beef, lamb, pork and chicken) and then looked at the number of colon cancer death per 100,000 in each country. They found high correlation (r=0.82) between mortality from colon cancer and consumption of meat; the higher the consumption of meat per capita in the country the higher the death rate from colon cancer”  

a)    Study type/design [2 marks]:


b)    Key feature(s) what led your decision of the study design from this text: [2 marks]

Q9.  Read the following abstract and answer the following questions
Background: Although gait speed slows with age, the rate of slowing varies greatly. To date, little is known about the trajectories of gait speed, their correlates, and their risk for mortality in older adults.
Methods: Gait speed during a 20-m walk was measured for a period of 8 years in initially well-functioning men and women aged 70–79 years participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. We described the trajectories of gait speed and examined their correlates using a group-based mixture model. Also risk associated with different gait speed trajectories on all-cause mortality was estimated using a Cox-proportional hazard model.
Results: Of 2,364 participants (mean age, 73.5±2.9 years; 52% women), we identified three gait speed trajectories: slow (n = 637), moderate (n = 1,209), and fast decline (n = 518). Those with fast decline slowed 0.030 m/s per year or 2.4% per year from baseline to the last follow-up visit. Women, blacks, and participants who were obese, had limited knee extensor strength, and had low physical activity were more likely to have fast decline than their counterparts. Participants with fast decline in gait speed had a 90% greater risk of mortality than those with slow decline.
Conclusion: Despite being well-functioning at baseline, a quarter of older adults experienced fast decline in gait speed, which was associated with an increased risk of mortality.

a)    What is the research question/s [2 marks]


b)    What is the exposure   [2 marks]

c)    What is the outcome   [2 marks]

d)    What is the study design – what led your decision of the study design from this text        [2 marks]   

Introduction To Epidemiology (401076)

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Introduction To Epidemiology (401076)

Humanities epidemiologist

Humanities epidemiologist.

Humanities epidemiologist

Imagine that you are a modern-day epidemiologist who travels back in time to 1692 in Salem, Massachusetts, the site of the Salem Witch Trials (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Some young girls in the town begin to exhibit symptoms such as screaming, contortions, and hiding under furniture. The girls accuse several adults of being witches and of having cast spells on them that cause these symptoms. You are unsure if these illnesses are caused by environmental factors, infection, or if they’re even real. You have no laboratory equipment or computers to carry out your investigation so you must rely on shoe leather epidemiology to try to determine the cause of the illnesses. Describe how you would carry out your investigation, including information on who you would talk to, what data you would gather, and how analysis of that data could lead you to rule in or rule out the potential causes mentioned above. Your discussion should be one to two pages, 1.5 spaced, 11-point font.

Humanities epidemiologist

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Humanities epidemiologist

Perception Analysis Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

Perception Analysis Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander.

Perception Analysis Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

Perception Analysis Cultural respect is essential for effective health service delivery to people of all backgrounds, but is especially significant in the context of the unacceptably poor health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. This assignment has been designed to provide students with an opportunity to explore their own perceptions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and the consequences of personal bias for culturally safe nursing practice. Following an in-class visualisation exercise of an Aboriginal patient, students will analyse and discuss their mental image, drawing upon constructs of worldview, privilege and personal bias. The essay will include discussion of the connotations of bias for nursing practice and their ability to deliver culturally safe and respectful care. Comprehensive marking criteria are attach 1200 words (+/- 10% ) UTS Harvard reference only

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Perception Analysis Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

Statistical Business Method

Statistical Business Method 

Provide a critical appraisal of the following paper. de Araújo TV, Rodrigues LC, de Alencar Ximenes RA, et al. Association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly in Brazil, January to May, 2016: preliminary report of a case-control study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Dec;16(12):1356-1363. Address the below questions in your response.

Unlike the short question and answer format of exercise 5, for this assessment please synthesise your answers to the questions in an essay format including an Introduction and Conclusion. What is the purpose of the study? (2 marks) What is the study design? Is this an appropriate study design for the purpose of the study? Justify your answer. (3 marks) Describe the sample. What is the target population? (4 marks) How was the matching done? Was this approach appropriate? (4 marks) What are the study factors?

How was information on these obtained? (4 marks) What are the outcome factors? How was information on these obtained? (4 marks) Did the researcher identify potential confounders in this study and if so, how did they deal with them (3 marks) Identify potential biases in this study. (2 marks) What statistical methods were used? Were these appropriate? (3 marks) Describe the study strengths/weaknesses/limitations. (5 marks) What are the main results from this study? (2 marks)

Taking into consideration the study strengths and weaknesses, do you think they are valid? (3 marks) What are the authors’ conclusions? Do you agree with them? (3 marks) Assuming that the results of this study are valid, what do you think are the most important public health implications from this paper? (3 marks)

Statistical Business Method 

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Facial Electromyography

Facial Electromyography 

THE EXPERT SHOULD HAVE KNOWLEDGE OF FACIAL ELECTROMYOGRAPHY (PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY) The purpose of this assessment is to allow you to demonstrate your ability to think and argue critically, in writing, about methods in psychological research. The assessment should be of 3000 words; a word count should be given. • Your evaluation must primarily concern methodological issues arising from the research described in the paper. You may wish to consider how the research might have been improved, or you may wish to describe the implications of the work for past or future research. In any case, it should show a clear engagement with, and understanding of, the methods employed in the research paper. • You should include a summary of the aims, methods, and conclusions of the paper, as relevant. Be brief but informative. • Your approach may be positive or negative, but we expect you to have a well-argued opinion. • Your thinking should demonstrate a clearly more sophisticated grasp of, and reasoning about, the issues than would be found in undergraduate work. The main criterion is that in the assessment you should show a graduate level grasp of research methodology as it applies within the particular Research Module chosen. • The next most important factor in marking will be the clarity of your writing. • You should use subheadings to divide your critique into sections covering different aspects of your critique. • An assessment which is merely a summary of the paper selected is likely to earn very poor marks. things that will be marked: 1.Understanding of method(s) 2.Critical evaluation of method(s) 3.Implications of the critique 4.Structure of the evaluation 5.Clarity of writing

Facial Electromyography 

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Medical Pharmacology

Medical Pharmacology

Task:

This presentation is about antiviral drug (Emtricitabine). – presentation with speech beneath the slides 9 slides content -two slides introduction ( when they start use it ) – one slide mechanism of drug ( contain picture) – two slides pharmacology and with its dosage – two slides for two different trial ( just a brife for each trial) – one slide for side effects ( the common and the rare one) and why this drug is better than the previous drugs in the same category. – one slide advantage and disadvantages put in table please in good design and format

Medical Pharmacology

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Medication Administration

Medication Administration 

TASK: Medication administration is one of the most frequent nursing clinical practice activities. The safe administration of medication contributes to the quality of patient care. Medication errors can occur during the prescribing, dispensing and administration of medications.Understanding the factors involved in the regulation of medications, pharmacology and error producing conditions, is an important way nurses can contribute to the reduction of medication errors.

The aim of this assessment is to enable you to demonstrate your understanding of: 1. The regulation of medications in Australia; 2. The principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; 3. The roles and responsibilities of healthcare professionalsinvolved in the medication cycle; 4. The factors that contribute to medication errors (and near-miss incidents), and possibleprevention strategies. Course Learning Outcomes: 1, 2 &3 TASK INSTRUCTIONS: • Provide a response to the 9 short answer questions below. • Each answer must be correctly structured using academic writing conventions (correct grammar, spelling, referencing, and sentence and paragraph structure).

Due to the limited word count, an introduction and conclusion for each question is not required. • Word count: The word count for each question varies. The word count for the short answer questions are outlined below. Word allocations cannot be transferred from one question to another. • Please refer to the Griffith Health Writing and Referencing Guide for information on formatting and referencing. In-text citations and reference list required Other elements: • Use scholarly literature (digitised readings, research articles, relevant Government reports, and textbooks) to support your responses to the questions.

Government reports and websites are also appropriate as a source of information • State your final word count (excluding your reference list) on the Griffith University Assignment Coversheet. • Submit your assignment online via the assessment submission point as per the instructions on your Learning@Griffith course site. [Submit in the ‘Assessment’ tab].

Medication Administration 

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Radiation Therapy For Breast Cancer

Radiation Therapy For Breast Cancer 

Topic: The role of Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH)Technique in the management of respiratory motion Objectives: In completing this assignment you will demonstrate your ability to search and critically appraise the literature relating to management of respiratory motion in the radiation therapy treatment of breast cancer. You will demonstrate an understanding of relevant issues relating to these techniques, as well as their impact on patient outcomes.

Indicative Content , Introduction , Methods (Search Strategy)  Review o Current practice (including advantages and challenges from a range of perspectives e.g. patient outcomes, department resources) , Discussion o Impact on the patients’ outcome o Potential future research and development.

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