Compose a 5000 words essay on War on our daughters in Africa : Laws Unenforced, Practices Unchanged for female genital mutilation Customs. Needs to be plagiarism free!Download file to see previous pag

Compose a 5000 words essay on War on our daughters in Africa : Laws Unenforced, Practices Unchanged for female genital mutilation Customs. Needs to be plagiarism free!

Download file to see previous pages…

Hernlund and Shell-Duncan noted that the ‘global movement to “eradicate FGM” has currently reached a point of increased critical reflection, involving the reassessment of intervention approaches, the reappraisal of priorities, and the resetting of goals’ (1). This paper will seek to establish the present state of the debate, examine approaches which have, in the past, been adopted in attempts to eradicate FGM, and evaluate the effectiveness of these practices in order to provide recommendations on what should be done to move forward on this pressing issue. Four major types of FGM have been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO). Type 1 involves the removal, or excision, of the clitoral hood. type 2 involves the removal of the clitoris and of part or all of the labia minora, and is the most widely practiced form. Type 3 generally involves the removal of part or all of the external genitalia, together with the stitching or narrowing of the vaginal opening, and type 4 refers to other procedures, including the cauterization of the clitoris and the stretching of the clitoris and labia. Type 1 and 2 together are thought to account for about 85% of FGM procedures (IRIN). Today, this practice is practiced mostly in Africa, the Middle East, and parts of Southeast Asia, but there has also been increasing documentation of FGM taking place in immigrant communities in the West. It is estimated that around the world, about 2 million girls a year are subjected to FGM, joining the perhaps 130 million women worldwide who have already been cut, and the practice continues in about 25-30 Sub-Saharan African countries, and in more than half of communities. In recent years, there has generally been a downward trend in the percentage of women being cut in some countries, but in others, there seems to have been little or no change (Feldman-Jacobs and Clifton, 3). Source: Feldman-Jacobs, C. &amp. Clifton, D., Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Data and Trends. Washington D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, 2008, p.2. Web. Accessed 20 February 2011. 2) Consequences of FGM The procedure is often carried out in an unsanitary environment by practitioners without sufficient medical training, without sterilization, and without the use of any regular anesthetic. As a result, the procedure itself can immediately lead to death by shock or by profuse bleeding. Furthermore, due to the lack of sanitation, the operation can result in the infection of wounds. The same knife is sometimes used to perform several operations at the same time, and so can lead to the spread of disease among the girls. The impact on the health of circumcised girls does not stop after the procedure. Many suffer long-term and recurrent urinary tract infections and cysts, and sexual intercourse can be extremely painful, especially for those whose vaginas were narrowed and stitched up as part of the FGM operation. This can also increase the likelihood of complications encountered during childbirth. It can also necessitate further surgery later on, including more stitching. As the procedure involves the removal of some of the key female erogenous zones, it can lead to desensitization, and the likelihood of sexual satisfaction in women who underwent FGM can be reduced, while others suffer from psychiatric and relationship problems which can be linked to FGM.

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