Create a 9 page essay paper that discusses Modernism in Architecture in Italy and Scandinavia: 1920-1970.Download file to see previous pages… Nevertheless, great architecture emerged from both sides

Create a 9 page essay paper that discusses Modernism in Architecture in Italy and Scandinavia: 1920-1970.

Download file to see previous pages…

Nevertheless, great architecture emerged from both sides. After the dust of the last war had settled down, architects were busy solving the problem of mass housing to accommodate congesting cities brought about by increasing population and migration of people from the countryside to search for better opportunities in the city. 2.0 The Different Interpretations of Architectural Modernism in Scandinavia and Italy, 1920-1970 2.1 Scandinavia Prior to WWI, Scandinavian architecture can be described as one in a state of unrest. Various art movements had their own passionate advocates, which extended to architecture. Movements like academic historicism, national romanticism, the art noveau and international rationalism all competed at the same time resulting in a cacophony of artistic movements that did not meld into one “absolute standard of taste.” This was to change however, after the war, when Scandinavian architecture followed three distinctive paths: National Romanticism. Neoclassical Interlude, and. International Functionalism.1 After the war, the Neo-Empiricism became popular in Scandinavia. 2.1.1 National Romanticism The National Romanticism movement in Scandinavia flourished when most of its countries were undergoing a social-democratic utopia, after having achieved independence from their colonizers and peace with each other. First, Sweden had just come into a peaceful agreement with Norway in 1905. second, Russia had finally granted Finland its independence in 1917, and. third, Germany had given back to Denmark a territory it took during the war. Moreover, these Scandinavian countries were experiencing newfound prosperity during the period between the first and second world wars. Socially, they were achieving peace and unity under the leadership of enlightened bourgeoisie ensuring labour and economic stability and peace. 2 These conditions inspired the Scandinavian countries to seek new forms of expressions in art, literature, music, interior design and architecture and found it in the National Romanticism movement. It was an extension of the nationalist movement in politics and was underpinned by a desire to find a national identity and be cultural independence. This movement flourished in European countries at a time when there was a particularly strong national feeling manifested architecturally by returning to medieval and peasant models as well as the use of rough materials like stone and brick, which were seen as symbols of national identity. Ordinary dwellings, for example, of farmers were perceived to be more natural and representative of local traditions. The movement was also inspired by ancient myths, which were also seen as emblems of national identity.3 The most renowned Scandinavian architect of the movement was Alvar Aalto.4 Aalto was a Finnish architect whose work was largely influenced by the Nationalist Romanticism and the Doricist sensibility. In Finland, the Nationalist Romanticism was underpinned by the need to veer away from the influence of Romantic Classicism as well as to take advantage of local granite, which was in abundance. 5 Fig 1 Stockholm City Hall (1911-1923)6 An iconic example of architecture constructed in accordance with the National Romanticism standard is the Stockholm City Hall (see Fig 1), also called Stadhuset, by Swedish architect Ragnar Ostberg. It was built between 1911 and 1923 and is located in the island of Kungsholmen in Sweden.

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