Hi, need to submit a 2000 words essay on the topic Sex Differences in Well Being: Research Published by Julie Pallant.

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Maybe this has implications for differentiating stress management programs according to gender. Introduction A result is considered statistically significant if it was not likely to happen by chance. This implies that a statistically significant test is one, which has assuring proof and can be explained. This research was done putting more focus on effect size and statistical significance. The report below gives a description of the investigation on sex difference and well-being while replicating the research done by Julie Pallant. Sample size is an important component of statistical significance in that larger samples have less mishap chances, a debate that is still ongoing. There is growing debate about the validity of significance testing for example Bakan(1966)concluded that “the test of statistical significance in psychological research may be taken as an instance of a kind of mindlessness in the conduct of research” (p .436). The level at which one can accept whether an event is statistically significant is known as the impact level or p-value. There are two forms of errors in statistical testing type I and type II .A type 1 error is also referred to as error of the first class. This is the wrong decision that occurs when a test discards a true or null hypothesis. The rate of the type .I error is called the size of the test and denoted by the Greek letter ? (alpha) and it often equals to the significance level of a test. On the other hand, a type .II error is the wrong decision that is made when a test accepts a false null hypothesis. The rate of the type .II error is signified by the Greek letter ? (beta) and associated to the power of a test (which equals 1 ? ?). Neale and Liebert considered that a single study has a limited capacity for findings to be generalized. (Neale and Liebert, 1986 cited in Thompson, B), because there are too many substitute explanations which can be offered thus it establishes the need for research to be replicated, and justifies the current research (i.e. ours!). Fisher’s alpha level was set by arbitrary agreement, and that now there is a growing opinion that just refuting the null hypothesis is insufficient, “unsound, poor scientific strategy” (Meehl, 1978 cited in Dunleavy, Barr, Glenn and Miller: 29), There is greater emphasis on reporting effect size with Clark saying that statistical tests did not give researchers enough information (Clark cited in Carver 1978). Carver (1978) said alternative methods to statistical tests should be considered. The aim of this research is to replicate Pallant’s research and this will add additional data to either support or question Pallant’s finding of a genuine effect. Thus, the question this research sets to answer is, can Pallant’s well being research and results be replicated using effect size data from the original study? Thus, the following steps will explain the replication of Pallant’s research. Design Pallant’s research was the design for the current study, and as with Pallant’s study two measures were used, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). The study was a group differences design The independent variable (IV) was the sex of the participant. This had two levels – male and female.