I will pay for the following essay Social Experiences Paper. The essay is to be 8 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page.Download file to see previous pages… F

I will pay for the following essay Social Experiences Paper. The essay is to be 8 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page.

Download file to see previous pages…

From the comparison of four grand theories, it is clear that only the theory of ‘social learning’ and the theory of ‘social constructivism’ truly acknowledge the role of social experiences in the process of child development and hence, prove to be more humane and positive than the other two grand theories of ‘behaviourism’ and ‘constructivism’. Behaviourism The theory of ‘behaviourism’ is based on the understanding that human being is a trainable being and hence, can be trained to behave in any particular way. Behaviourism believes that through certain methods of training and discipline, not only a person’s behaviour pattern can be changed, but even his reflexes can trained to respond in certain way to certain stimuli. Behaviourists rejected the child development theories which focused on ‘mental events’ as the cause of child development, and focused their attention on understanding how the behaviour of a child is influenced by his environment (Oates, Wood and Grayson 2005, p.51). …

Classical conditioning refers to the reflex behaviours when presented with stimuli in environment (Oates, Wood and Grayson 2005, p.53). However, it was realized that classical conditioning, as it produced only reflex behaviour, was useful in re-training only the reflex behaviours and not the behaviours which were not the part of reflex behaviours (Oates, Wood and Grayson 2005, p.53). Hence, behaviourists came up with method of ‘operant conditioning.’ It was B.F. Skinner (1905-1990), who demonstrated through an experiment on rat, that people can be made to learn and maintain certain behaviours by modifying the consequences of those behaviours (Oates, Wood and Grayson 2005, p.53). Hence, according to beahviourism, consequences of behaviour make a person to learn and maintain all his behaviour patterns (Oates, Wood and Grayson 2005, p.51). Skinner found that when a particular behaviour is associated with positive consequence, then that behaviour tends to increase in frequency (Oates, Wood and Grayson 2005, p.54). However, when a particular behaviour results in pain or negative consequence, then that behaviour tends to decrease in a person (Oates, Wood and Grayson 2005, p.54). From this relationship between behaviour and its consequences, Skinner demonstrated that the methods of ‘reinforcement’ and ‘punishment’ can be used to increase and reduce the frequency of given behaviour, respectively (Oates, Wood and Grayson 2005, p.54).

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