In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the…

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

We considered a number of methods for measuring similarity between countries with respect to their mathematics attainment. A simple comparison of scale scores over time was rejected as this would limit the investigation to asking how much respondents from a country know on a given topic. Instead, we chose an item-level analysis that allows for a closer examination of what respondents in a given country know and how this compares to other countries.

References:

Rutkowski, L., & Rutkowski, D. (2009). Trends in TIMSS responses over time: Evidence of global forces in education? Educational Research and Evaluation, 15(2), 137-152.

One criticism of using scale scores or total scores on a test is that it can hide interesting details. For example, Rutkowski and Rutkowski (2009, p. 140) rejected scale scores in favor of an item-level analysis since it would allow “for a closer examination of what respondents in a given country know and how this compares to other countries”.

References:

Rutkowski, L., & Rutkowski, D. (2009). Trends in TIMSS responses over time: Evidence of global forces in education? Educational Research and Evaluation, 15(2), 137-152.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 
Word-for-Word plagiarism 
Paraphrasing plagiarism 
This is not plagiarism

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Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Whereas Gauguin was an iconoclast, caustic in speech, cynical, indifferent, and at times brutal to others, Vincent van Gogh (1853-90) was filled with a spirit of enthusiasm for his fellow artists and overwhelming love for humanity.

References:

Arnason, H. H. (2003). History of modern art: painting, sculpture, architecture, photography (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Arnason (2003) describes van Gogh as “filled with a spirit of enthusiasm for his fellow artists” (p. 63), which contrasts with Gauguin known for being an iconoclast, caustic in speech, cynical, indifferent, and at times brutal to others.

References:

Arnason, H. H. (2003). History of modern art: painting, sculpture, architecture, photography (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 
Word-for-Word plagiarism 
Paraphrasing plagiarism 
This is not plagiarism

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Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Remember the Grudgers of Chapter 10. These were birds that helped each other in an apparently altruistic way, but refused to help – bore a grudge against – individuals that had previously refused to help them. Grudgers came to dominate the population because they passed on more genes to future generations than either Suckers (who helped others indiscriminately, and were exploited) or Cheats (who tried ruthlessly to exploit everybody and ended up doing each other down).

References:

Dawkins, R. (1989). The selfish gene (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

In the example, three categories of behavior are identified: Cheats, Suckers, and Grudgers. Cheats attempted ruthlessly to take advantage of everybody. Suckers aided others without discrimination, and were taken advantage of. The behavior of Grudgers they replicated accurately was a bit more complex.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 
Word-for-Word plagiarism 
Paraphrasing plagiarism 
This is not plagiarism

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Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

As a further example, APT queries and their results may be used to form rules for expert systems that become part of an intelligent computer-based instructional system. Such a system theoretically can optimize student learning by recommending instructional sequences (i.e., temporal patterns) that have high probabilities of resulting in student mastery. In other words, APT-based decision making by a computer program can provide an empirical foundation for artificial intelligence.

References:

Frick, T. W. (1990). Analysis of patterns in time: A method of recording and quantifying temporal relations in education. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 180-204.

The use of artificial intelligence to make instructional decisions has been identified by many authors. The analysis of patterns in time (APT) queries “may be used to form rules for expert systems” (Frick, 1990, p. 202) for use in education. APT-based decision making by a computer program can provide an empirical foundation for artificial intelligence.

References:

Frick, T. W. (1990). Analysis of patterns in time: A method of recording and quantifying temporal relations in education. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 180-204.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 
Word-for-Word plagiarism 
Paraphrasing plagiarism 
This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Television and radio editorials–when they rarely occur–are usually bland; typically, they are opposed to sin and for freedom. But too many newspaper editorials are the same, and newspapers do not have a federal license that might be taken away. The unspoken motto that hangs over too many editorial-writing desks is: Don’t offend the advertisers. Don’t offend the public. Don’t be too controversial.

References: 

Simon, P. (2003). Our culture of pandering.Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Editorials on radio and television are most often rather bland with opposition being raised to bad things and good things being, unsurprisingly, praised (Simon, 2003). The same problem occurs with editorials in many newspapers and, unlike their media counterparts, newspapers are not federally licensed and thus cannot be threatened with license revocation. So we are left with the question of how to encourage media of various types to promote a more meaningful dialog in society.

References: 

Simon, P. (2003). Our culture of pandering.Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 
Word-for-Word plagiarism 
Paraphrasing plagiarism 
This is not plagiarism

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Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

From reading educator-authors’ revisions, and experiencing confusion myself surrounding how performance measures fit into a design case, I feel the problem arises from how new authors view design cases in relation to scientific experimental studies in education. A designer who is also a researcher must recognize the difference in perspective between a design case and an experimental study which uses a design for teaching and learning.

References: 

Howard, C. D. (2011). Writing and rewriting the instructional design case: A view from two sides. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 2(1), 40-55.

Seeing the differences in viewpoint between a study that reports experimental results and a design case is a must for an individual who is both a designer and a researcher. Howard identifies this change of perspective as being critical to new authors of design cases.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 
Word-for-Word plagiarism 
Paraphrasing plagiarism 
This is not plagiarism

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Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Modifications that increase task difficulty are also presented to assist instructors in structuring developmental progressions for activities that reflect various net/wall games. For example, game modifications that require participants to strike a ball with a hand after a bounce are introduced before requiring participants to strike a ball with a racquet or with a hand without a bounce.

References:

Mandigo, J. L., & Anderson, A. T. (2003). Using the pedagogical principles in net/wall games to enhance teaching effectiveness. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 14(1), 8-11.

One strategy for changing a task to decrease difficulty comes from physical education where “game modifications that require participants to strike a ball with a hand after a bounce are introduced before requiring participants to strike a ball with a racquet or with a hand without a bounce” (Mandigo & Anderson, 2003, p. 9). A participant may then be able to focus on other aspects of the game (e.g., strategy) or find that their anxiety about playing has decreased.

References:

Mandigo, J. L., & Anderson, A. T. (2003). Using the pedagogical principles in net/wall games to enhance teaching effectiveness. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 14(1), 8-11.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 
Word-for-Word plagiarism 
Paraphrasing plagiarism 
This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

If a bird used the ‘There is a hawk’ signal when there was no hawk, thereby frightening his colleagues away, leaving him to eat all their food, we might say he had told a lie. We would not mean he had deliberately intended consciously to deceive. All that is implied is that the liar gained food at the other birds’ expense, and the reason the other birds flew away was that they reacted to the liar’s cry in a way appropriate to the presence of a hawk.

References:

Dawkins, R. (1989). The selfish gene (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

As Dawkins (1989) claims, associating a lie with a bird does not imply intention on the part of the bird. “All that is implied is that the liar gained food at the other birds’ expense, and the reason the other birds flew away was that they reacted to the liar’s cry in a way appropriate to the presence of a hawk” (Dawkins, 1989, p. 64).

References:

Dawkins, R. (1989). The selfish gene (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 
Word-for-Word plagiarism 
Paraphrasing plagiarism 
This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

It is when all our forces can move freely in us. In nature, this quality is almost automatic, because there are no images to interfere with natural processes of making things. But in all of our creations, the possibility occurs that images can interfere with the natural, necessary order of a thing. And, most of all, this way that images distort the things we make, is familiar in ourselves.

References:

Alexander, C. (1979). The timeless way of building(Vol. 1). New York, NY: Oxford University Press USA.

When Alexander (1979) says that “in all of our creations, the possibility occurs that images can interfere with the natural, necessary order of a thing” (p. 48) he seems to imply that there is one unique right way possible to design a solution to a problem. While this perspective could be considered elitist, some of the most successful products are based on this premise.

References:

Alexander, C. (1979). The timeless way of building(Vol. 1). New York, NY: Oxford University Press USA.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 
Word-for-Word plagiarism 
Paraphrasing plagiarism 
This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Many students graduate from college not knowing what they want to do with their lives. We propose that students should be encouraged to think about life goals (not just career goals) from an early age and be encouraged to be constantly on the lookout for better goals.

References:

Reigeluth, C. M., Watson, W. R., Watson, S. L., Dutta, P., Chen, Z. C., & Powell, N. D. P. (2008). Roles for technology in the information-age paradigm of education: Learning management systems. Educational Technology, 48(6), 32-39.

Despite investing thousands of dollars into higher education, numerous individuals graduate from university without a clear direction for their lives. Urging learners to consider life aims at a young age with frequent reevaluation could help to avoid this situation (Reigeluth et al., 2008).

References:

Reigeluth, C. M., Watson, W. R., Watson, S. L., Dutta, P., Chen, Z. C., & Powell, N. D. P. (2008). Roles for technology in the information-age paradigm of education: Learning management systems. Educational Technology, 48(6), 32-39.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 
Word-for-Word plagiarism 
Paraphrasing plagiarism 
This is not plagiarism

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