Label the following statements as either (a) placebo effect, (b) nocebo effect, or (c) positive response to experiment method
An individual is taking part in a new sleep medication study. During the study, she is not given the actual drug being tested, and reports having increased difficulty with sleeping as compared to before starting the study.
An individual participates in a study of a new migraine medication. She is unknowingly assigned to the control group that does not receive the actual drug, and the person experiences fewer migraines.
An individual who participates in a study regarding the effectiveness of a new memory recall method. During the study, she is assigned to the group that is instructed to use a method that is not the one being tested, and reports improved memory.
An individual participates in a study regarding effectiveness of a specific individual psychotherapy approach and receives weekly sessions for 12 weeks. She is assigned to the group that receives the therapy method being studied and reports improvement during 12 weeks of treatment and continued improvement in a 9 month follow-up.