Literature Review animal nutrition
Assessment item 1 back to top Literature Review Length: 2000 words (maximum) excluding references Submission method options: EASTS (online) Task back to top Background A literature review is an objective, thorough summary and critical analysis of the relevant available research literature on the topic being studied. Often students gets overwhelmed by the term “literature review” so alternatively think of this assessment task as a written assignment, which is structured on the use of heading and subheadings and with the information presented sourced from multiple, reputable sources.
The aim of a literature review is to bring the reader up-to-date with literature on the topic. It is well written and does not contain personal bias. Good structuring (using headings and subheadings) is essential to enhance the flow of readability of the review. Referencing should be accurate throughout. Searching the literature: Having selected a topic, the next step is to identify the appropriate and related information. Only scientific, peer-reviewed information is acceptable, so this limits the sources of information to papers from peer-reviewed scientific journal papers and text books.
Keyword searches are the most common method of identifying literature. Manual searches of journals that are specifically related to the topic of interest or those that are likely to cover the topic can also be performed. A maximum time frame of 5–10 years generally applies for the age of the works to be included. I
n the field of animal nutrition, papers from peer-reviewed scientific journals are always more up-to-date than text books as sources of information. Writing the review: Once the appropriate literature has been resourced, the next step is to consider how the review will be structured and written. The first step is to establish the order of headings and subheading. The key to good writing is to present the information in such a way that it demonstrates your knowledge in a clear and consistent way. Sentences should be kept as short as possible with one clear message and spelling and grammar should be accurate. The organisation of material in an objective manner and the structure of the review are crucial to its comprehensiveness. The introduction should include the purpose of the review. The main body of the report (using headings and subheadings) presents and discusses the findings from the literature; literature that is central to the topic should be analysed in depth here. The reader should know that the reviewer has understood and synthesised the relevant information, by evaluating evidence about a topic, pointing out similarities and differences and offering possible explanations for any inconsistencies uncovered.
The review should conclude with a concise (brief) summary of the findings that describes current knowledge and offers a rationale for conducting future research. Task You are required to write a review on : Effects of mycotoxins on either pig, poultry or dairy production. All of the references used must be from peer-reviewed scientific journals or textbooks. General web pages including university publications (bulletins, lecture notes from any university, etc.) and government department publications, (such Department of Agriculture or similar fact sheets, AgNotes etc) are not acceptable. Information sourced from textbooks must constitute no more than 10% of the review. Rationale back to top Subject learning outcomes This assessment task will assess the following learning outcome/s: be able to demonstrate the practical application of science to the feeding of animals. Graduate learning outcomes This task also contributes to the assessment of the following CSU Graduate Learning Outcome/s: Academic Literacy and Numeracy (Knowledge) – CSU Graduates understand the use and structure of appropriate language in written, oral, visual, mathematical, and multi-modal communication.
Academic Literacy and Numeracy (Skill) – CSU Graduates demonstrate the literacy and numeracy skills necessary to understand and interpret information and communicate effectively according to the context. Academic Literacy and Numeracy (Application) – CSU Graduates consider the context, purpose, and audience when gathering, interpreting, constructing, and presenting information. Information and Research Literacies (Knowledge) – CSU Graduates demonstrate that disciplinary knowledge is developed through research and evidence. Information and Research Literacies (Skill) – CSU Graduates demonstrate the skills required to locate, access and critically evaluate existing information and data. Marking criteria and standards back to top Grade Criteria High distinction Provides a persuasive analysis of the topic, addressing all parts of the topic; analysis demonstrates an exceptional understanding of all sides of the issue being examined. In doing so demonstrates exceptional ability to integrate information from a collection of appropriate articles sourced by the student to summarise and integrate the important issues. Document presented are per instructions and is well organised and well written with no grammatical errors or colloquialisms. Correct in-text referencing.
Correct formatting used in the reference list. Distinction Provides a comprehensive analysis of the topic, addressing most parts of the topic; analysis demonstrates understanding of all sides of the issue being examined and is evenly developed with few exceptions. In doing so demonstrates comprehensive ability to integrate information from a collection of appropriate articles sourced by the student to summarise and integrate the important issues. Document presented as per instruction and is clearly written in appropriate standard English; some grammatical errors or colloquialisms. Correct in-text referencing. Correct formatting used in the reference list. Credit Sound analysis of the topic, addressing most parts of the topic; analysis adequate and evenly developed. In doing so demonstrates sound ability to integrate information from a collection of appropriate articles sourced by the student to summarise and integrate the important issues. Document in presented as per instruction and is clearly written in appropriate standard English; some grammatical errors or colloquialisms.
Correct in-text referencing. Correct formatting used in the reference list. Pass Basic analysis of the topic, addressing most parts of the topic; analysis adequate but unevenly developed. In doing so demonstrates basic ability to integrate information from a collection of appropriate articles sourced by the student to summarise and integrate the important issues. Document is not presented as per instruction, and while the writing is understandable, it contains several grammatical errors or colloquialisms. Correct in-text referencing. Correct formatting used in the reference list. Fail Descriptive rather than analytical. Only marginally related to the topic, with significant logical gaps. In doing so does not demonstrate the ability to source or integrate information from a collection of appropriate articles. Document is not presented as per instruction. It is also not well written with a pattern of grammatical errors and/or inappropriate colloquialisms. Incorrect in-text referencing. Incorrect formatting used in the reference list. Presentation back to top The literature review is to be presented as follows: Font = size 11; line spacing = 1.5 All pages must be numbered. Headings All headings should be typed in lower-case letters, with only the first letter of the first word and proper names capitalised. Main headings should be typed bold.
Second-order headings (subheadings) should be typed in italics. Paragraphs All paragraphs following a heading are indented. Units Use only SI units. The standard SI units and their abbreviations are as follows: Length: metre(s) – m; millimetre – mm Weight: gram(s) – g; kilogram(s) – kg Volume: litre(s) – L; millilitre – mL; cubic metre(s) – m3 Area: hectare(s) – ha; square metre(s) – m2 Time: second(s) – sec; hour(s) – h; day(s) – d Numerals Use numerals in the running text, except at the start of a sentence; but in titles and headings spell out numbers from 1 to 9. Tables In the text, use capital ´T´ for Table 1. In column headings, side headings and Table entries, only capitalise the first letter of the first word and proper names. Units (mm, %, etc.) should be in parentheses and placed just after or below the headings (but above the line for column headings). Footnotes in Tables refer to specific column or row headings or to specific values in a Table. Use superscripts (A, B, C, etc.) for Table footnotes. Do not use vertical rules (lines) in Tables. Figures In the text and in the captions, do not use the abbreviated style of Fig. 1, write in full (Figure 1).
References None of the journals that publish papers relating to animal nutrition use the APA referencing style, they all use a Harvard style. The Harvard style is very simple. For in-text referencing when there are less than two authors you list all authors (e.g. Smith 2010; Jones and Smith 2014). If there are more than 2 authors you list the first author, followed by et al. (e.g. Howard et al. 2015). When citing multiple references, they are cited chronologically (and then alphabetically) and are separated by a semicolon (Jones 2011; Partridge et al. 2013 ). If successive sentences are from the same source, the information is referenced only once. All references in the text must be listed at the end of the paper, arranged alphabetically; all entries in this list must correspond to references in the text. Style guide for references If you are using Endnote, then select (any) Harvard style. If you are not using Endnote, the following are examples of Harvard style referencing: Journal article Hubick KT, Farquhar GD, Shorter R (1986) Correlation between water-use efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination in diverse peanut (Arachis) germplasm. Literature Review animal nutrition
Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 13, 803-816. Note: use doi only if it is a current (2019) article for which the volume and page numbers have not yet been allocated. Book chapter Blackmore DJ (1996) Are rural land practices a threat to the environment? In ´Soil science – raising the profile´. (Ed. N Uren) pp. 22-30. (ASSSI and NZSSS: Melbourne) Book Attiwill PM, Adams MA (Eds) (1996) ´Nutrition of eucalypts.´ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne) Hogan B, Beddington R, Constantine F, Lacy E (Eds) (1994) ´Manipulating the mouse embryo – a laboratory manual (2nd edn).´ (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: Cold Spring Harbor, NY) Conference Proceedings Hayman PT, Collett IJ (1996) Estimating soil water: to kick, to stick, to core or computer? In ´Proceedings of the 8th Australian agronomy conference´. (Ed. M Asghar) p. 664. (The Australian Society of Agronomy Inc.: Toowoomba, Qld) Kawasu T, Doi K, Ohta T, Shinohara Y, Ito K (1990) Transformation of eucalypts (Eucalyptus saligna) using electroporation. In ´Proceedings of the VIIth international congress on plant tissue and cell culture´. Literature Review animal nutrition
pp. 64-68. (Amsterdam IAPTC: Amsterdam)Simpson RJ, Bond WJ, Cresswell HP, Paydar Z, Clark SG, Moore AD, Alcock DJ, Donnelly JR, Freer M, Keating BA, Huth NI, Snow VO (1998) A strategic assessment of sustainability of grazed pasture systems in terms of their water balance. In ´Proceedings of the 9th Australian agronomy conference´. (Eds DL Michalk, JE Pratley) pp. 239-242. (The Australian Agronomy Society Inc.: Melbourne). Literature Review animal nutrition
Literature Review animal nutrition