Math solutions/problems

Question 1

1. What do we call a number that is generated by dividing ? by the N in a distribution?

Mode

Mean

Median

Range

Question 2

1. If p < .05, then you can assume:

The results are significant

You can reject the null hypothesis

Results more extreme occur fewer than 5 times in 100

All of the above

Question 3

A distribution with two separated peaks is a _____distribution; one that is normal is a ______ distribution.

Bimodal; Rectangular

Rectangular; Bimodal

Bimodal; normal

Normal; Rectangular

Question 4

Taking chance factors into account when you samples to reach conclusions about population is a definition of:

Inferential Statistics

Rationalism

Scales of measurement

Descriptive Statistics

Question 5

A Spearman’s rs examines correlations between ranked data.

True

False

Question 6

With respect to cause and effect statements, a correlation coefficient of 1.00 allows that there may be a cause and effect relationship; a correlation coefficient of .00 indicates that there is no cause and effect relationship.

True

False

Question 7

As a general rule, quantitative research articles are shorter in length because of their deductive approach and use of numbers to express relationships.

True

False

Question 8

A researcher conducted an ANOVA, and the data indicated that there were significant differences between the groups (p < .01). The researcher should conduct a series of independent sample t-tests to determine where the differences in the groups occur.

True

False

Question 9

In general, it is always important to remember the questions that are asked in any study you perform. Virtually everything you do from writing the research design to writing the study’s implications is dictated by the research questions.

True

False

Question 10

An independent samples t-test is a nonparametric test because it features means and standard deviations?

True

False

Question 11

The __________ distribution occurs when the mean, median, and mode are the same.

Question 12

For what purpose do scholars use a Pearson’s Product Moment r?

Question 13

A researcher computes an independent sample t-test, and determines that p < .05. What does this mean?

Question 14

Describe parametric tests.

Question 15

Describe the ANOVA.

Question 16

A professor is interested in knowing the correlation, if any, of students’ scores on the first and second exams given in his class.

Test 1 Test 2

92 86

90 87

89 85

82 90

88 79

92 90

100 92

91 84

Select the correct statistical test; perform the test; report the results according to the handbook guidelines; explain what the results mean to the professor.

Question 17

With respect to the situation in question 16, what other test could the professor use that would yield valid results by looking for differences between the student’s performance on the first and second exam?

Select the correct statistical test; perform the test; report the results according to the handbook guidelines; explain what the results mean to the professor.

Here is the data again:

Test 1 Test 2

92 86

90 87

89 85

82 90

88 79

92 90

100 92

91 84

Question 18

Now, let’s look at a situation in which we compare three college math teachers to each other with respect to how interested they keep their students. The study was conducted among freshmen enrolled in an introductory course. The unit was quadratic equations. Students were asked to jot down an x on a piece of paper every time they found their attention drifting away from the lecture. What test or tests would you use to rule out chance from causing the apparent differences in these data?

Here are data from one fifty minute lecture:

Teacher A Teacher B Teacher C

5 9 4

5 7 4

7 4 6

4 7 5

6 8 6

6 7 5

5 4 4

5 5 6

43 51 40

Select the correct statistical test; perform the test; report the results according to the handbook guidelines; explain what the results mean.

Question 19

1. In a study by Latane and Dabbs (1975), an experimenter entered hundreds of elevators and “accidently” dropped a bunch of pencils. Some bystanders helped pick them up and some did not. Of the 1303 females, 300 helped. Of the 1320 males, 370 helped. (Was gender related to helpfulness?). Select the correct statistical test; perform the test; report the results according to the handbook guidelines; explain what the results mean.

Question 20

A researcher examines factors that affect thinking. In one study, she had three groups of participants work on seven problems that required creative thinking. One group prepared for the task by exercising; a second group watched a comedy video; the third group was a control group that simply began work on the problems. The scores below show the number correct for each participant.

Exercise Comedy Control

5 4 4

4 7 2

1 6 1

2 5 1

3 3 3

0 4 2

2 7 0

Select the correct statistical test; perform the test, and any subsequent post-hoc tests; report the results according to the handbook guidelines; explain what the results mean.

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