Need an argumentative essay on Civil Engineering Measurement. Needs to be 4 pages. Please no plagiarism.Download file to see previous pages… Such earthworks could be for paved areas, for sub-bases,

Need an argumentative essay on Civil Engineering Measurement. Needs to be 4 pages. Please no plagiarism.

Download file to see previous pages…

Such earthworks could be for paved areas, for sub-bases, for contiguous filler materials, for surface water channels and for landscape areas. In case of embankments earthworks will be treated as capping tops only while in case of permanent storage it will exclude top soil. For structures below the level of ground, the permanently exposed face below ground level will be considered only. For the case of a foundation the permanently exposed face above ground level down to capping level will be considered. For treated areas the Series Existing Ground Level will be obtained after treatment. The sub soil level will be defined after the removal of the top soil level as per contract specification. Surcharge has been considered as any material put on embankments for loading them. Moreover it has been assumed that one cubic meter removed material is equal to one cubic meter of compacted fill and there is no space for bulking or shrinkage. Another important thing is that excavated materials from Series 100 to 500 and Series 700 to 2500 cannot be evaluated according to these designations. For embankments the first 75 mm are not measured but for landscapes the additional fill, deposition and compaction are not measured. The unit of excavation has been delineated as one cubic meter and the total range of measurements for excavation are carried out for the top soil, cuttings, removal of surcharge, structural foundations, foundations for corrugated steel barriers (above and below ground level), new and enlarged water courses, clearing of abandoned water courses, gabion walling, caps for mines, wells, swallow holes etc. and swamps, marshes bogs. It has also been made clear that separate items should be provided for excavation as per Chapter II paragraphs 3 and 4 as well as designated Groups I to IV. Again all measurements are in meters for these groups. In addition the excavation of hard materials has also been designated and the unit of measurement is Hard Material cubic meter while the methods of measurement remain the same as provided above. Separate items have been provided for extra over excavation for hard excavation as Group I and II. The item coverage for soft and hard materials is markedly different and has been defined accordingly. The types of unacceptable materials have also been defined as those that can be processed using mechanical, chemical, hydraulic or other means and the unit of measurement is the cubic meter but measurement can only ensue when required specifically by the contract. Separate items have been provided as per Group I, II and III. In a similar manner the deposition of fill has been designated too and the unit of measurement is cubic meter and separate items have been provided as Group I, II and III. The disposal of material is similar and the unit of measurement is the cubic meter while separate items have been defined under Group I and II. Imported fill is measured in cubic meters too and separate items are designated as Group I and II. On the other hand, compacted fill is measured in cubic meters and separate items have been designated in Group I, II and III. Moreover for compaction the kinds of voids and gaps that are to be filled are defined as structures, fill on capping, sub base material, road base, fill on bridges, bedding for buried structures and the like.

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