# PERT Analysis

PERT Analysis

a)
Activity Precedence Optimistic Time Most Likely Time Pessimistic Time Expected Time
A Spec Out System 2 3 4 3
B Software Design A 45 50 60 50.8
C Obtain Printers A 20 25 30 25
D Obtain Scanners A 10 15 20 15
E Trench I Construction 4 5 7 5.17
F Trench II Construction E 1 2 3 2
G Trench III Construction F 4 5 8 5.3
H New Mess Room 10 13 16 13
I Demolish Old Mess Room H 3 4 5 4
J New Clean Room I 20 25 30 25
K Installation B,C,D,G,J 2 4 7 4.16
L Testing K 1 2 6 2.5
M Dual Run L 8 10 14 10.33

PERT Analysis

Spec Ou

The probability of the project being completed in 108 days, by April 29th, is low, although the probable timeframe of 120 days is not very far off the mark, with probable lateness of two weeks
an acceptable amount of extension. In order to eliminate the possibility of lateness, the project manager needs to source for more manpower in order to ensure that the man hours put in fit within the budgeted time cumulatively.
How to carry out a PERT Analysis
i) Draw a table in which you sequence the activities to be carried out in order of precedence, with the activities coming first at the top of the table. Assign the tasks numbers or letters in alphabetical order, with the first task designated as A (1) next as B (2) and so on.
ii) Once the activities are sequenced, determine the activities that will be performed at the same time and assign them similar numbers, or letters.
iii) Determine the Optimistic time (O), Most likely time (M), Pessimistic time (P) and from all three, the expected time. The expected time is calculated using the equation: TE= {O +(4M) +P}/6
iv) When drawing the PERT chart, the first activity entered must be the firon the sequence, with subsequent consecutive events linked. Events occurring concurrently are placed at the same level. The chart should however be created in a tentative manner that allows for the addition of more activities.
v) Following the drawing of the PERT chart, one should also draw a Gantt chart that focuses on the time that will be taken to complete each task, as well as the sequence of the events.
b) Labor Histogram
A labor histogram is meant to help determine current and forecast future labor needs. It contains details of how many individuals will be required to complete the task within the time provided, as well as the number of hours that it will take to complete the task. A properly drawn histogram provides essential details over how many employees will be required to complete a given stage of the project.
For projects with predictable timelines, the X-axis is usually used to plot the timeline of the project, in this case, between January 13th and April 29th. The Y axis depicts data for the number of man hours to be put in each day (At times even the number of employees to be utilized at a given stage of the project can be inferred from the histogram.
The process of leadership and motivation of staff is one that is of utmost good if any project or organization is to run effectively. The case in point of introduction of a scanned stacking system in a medium size company together with construction of uncontaminated room is not an exception. Leadership will encompass the way in the manager of the engineering team responsible for this work will direct, lead and most importantly influence the performance and mannerism of his team in the accomplishment of the project. The manager in this case should be in a position to induce the team so that they can perform their work full of confidence and zeal. He should be able to influence the behavior of the likes of Bill Wisestaff, Dave Penny and Sam Bluster among others who will work on the project. In other words, the manager will be required to develop some vision for the project together with workable timelines and come up with mechanisms of motivating the team in the achievement of those objectives. The manager must have the capacity to factors that can bind the group as one and keep the members motivated to work and accomplish the project. This paper is a comprehensive look into the options that the project manager can utilize in leading and motivating the group for the success of the project.
The project manager, can in this case utilize a number of styles in his leadership approach. Worth noting is the idea that one leadership style may be valid in one situation and not in another, and can also change from one person to another. The first style that the project manager can use is the use of legitimate power. It has its basis on trust that employees hold in as far as their project manager is concerned. This style is relevant in cases where team members feel that their project manager has the mandate to issue orders in respect to the position he holds. To people such as Bill Wisestaff who is said to be very trusting to staff, this style can be most the appropriate. Similarly, when dealing with the like of Peter Smith, this style can be very effective. However, it is very imperative to note that despite the fact that team members may obey the directives of the project manager, they are likely not own up any decision made and by extension be uncooperative. This simply implies that the implementation of the project has chances of being unsuccessful.
The other style that a leader can use is the infamous reward power. This style is grounded in the potential and ability of the project manager to give some types of motivational rewards in appreciation of exceptional performance. The reward can take many forms including monetary compensation, certificates and letters of appreciation. In most cases, reward leadership does not major on money rewards or any other physical rewards. In the contrary, intangible benefits are given more weight and thus taken as enough. In this case, a person such as Sam Bluster who apparently is known for driving rates of production to great heights can probably work more efficiently with this style of leadership. For such an individual, reward acts as a strong motivation to hard work. By rewarding excellence performing employees, the project manager will succeed in keeping others in their toes and hence effectively achieve the project objectives.
Equally useful is the use of coercive power in leading a team. The project manager can forcefully get the team member to obey his instructions, say by setting in an intimidation to punish defectors in the picture. A caution is given concerning Sam Bluster that despite being a hard working person, he can also be a nuisance and fail to cooperate. To handle such times, a project manager may choose to use the coercive style of leadership. However, it need be noted that coercive leadership is effective in just in the short run. This is purely because, should it be used for a long period it can easily cultivate dysfunctional performance from the team members. In other words, despite the fact that it is an option that the project manager can explore, he should by all means try not to use coercive style.
Lastly, the project manager can consider using the expert power leadership style. In fact to lead individuals who understand their work such as Dave Penny and Ray Sparks the expert power style appears to be the most valid. In carrying out this project, individuals in the team are no doubt people with knowledge in their areas of specialization, and are likely to embrace leadership from an individual of the same status. Expert leadership largely relies on trust that the team member will have on the project manager with regard to his knowledge level and his possession of highly specialized skills in the area of engineering and information technology.
A project manager who is mandated with the role of heading information technology systems need to be highly self motivated if he will succeed in motivating other team members. Motivating oneself would mean putting one total attention on whatever thing he engages in and striving to excel in it. A leader should commit himself to achieving the best he possibly can. By extension a motivated leader is in a position to motivate others. This could be through consciously looking for avenues to help them to perk up their lives, and by extension achieve the set goals. Some aspects must be present in a leader if they are to lead and motivate others. One of such is integrity. A project manager should posses this quality of a leader. This quality is seemingly the most valued quality of a leader. When a project manager shows this quality he has total and persistent honesty in as far as his actions and utterance are concerned. In motivating team members, the integrity of a leader outdoes all other essential qualities. A project manager measure of integrity level is a function of how honest he is in the most important areas of the project accomplishment. This may include areas such as financial and time management. In as far as motivation is concerned, calls for a leader to agree when he make mistakes and gather strength to compensate his weaknesses. People are motivated when a leader deals with all team members in a straight forward manner without compromising.
CONCLUSION
Therefore, the team that has the responsibility of implementing the project is made of different individual with diverse characters, needs and aspirations. With this background, the project manager may consider harmonizing and matching the individual team needs with those of the organization. Similarly, the idea of reward and appreciation are major motivators and by extension influences individuals in the achievement of a desired objective. In this case, the project manager can decide on methods of rewarding exceptional behavior or performance with some kind of appreciation which can include a certificate or even a letter of appreciation. As earlier discussed, a project manager should walk the talk. In the accomplishment of this project, the project manager needs to be a reliable example that the other team members can look at and learn from. He should be effective and thorough in his work. Involving the team in making the decision is good leadership. This not only motivates them, but also gets them to understand the difficulties and intricacies that come with the major decision-making process. In addition it will make the team members have an in depth understanding of what is expected of them in the organization. Communication process should be very clear and unambiguous throughout the project life. The other aspect that is certainly of greater good is the idea of creating moral and team spirit within the employees. There is no doubt that the emotional and cognitive state of an individual makes up her or his moral structure. A project manager should note that his decisions and actions have an impact on the morale and level of motivation of the team members. The likes of Peter Smith who don’t love working under pressure should be given an opportunity to enjoy performing his duties without much frustrating from the project manager. When all is done the aspects of motivation and proper leadership are the ingredients to project success.