1.When Euthyphro first defines holy as “what I am doing now” (Section II), that is, prosecuting his father for murder, what is Socrates major problem with this definition?
2. How does Socrates support his conclusion that what is dear to ALL of the gods is not the same as holy? (Section V; this is neither an easy nor short answer)
3. According to Socrates, what is wrong with saying that “holy” means “prayer and sacrifice to the gods”? What is his argument?
4. Does Socrates ever give his own definition of the holy, or even come close? If so, what is
1. According to Tolstoy, why does life seem to be meaningless, and for most of the story, what does he think is the best response to life’s meaninglessness?
2. Explain the “Eastern fable” as it relates to the previous question. Make sure to include what the parts of the fable symbolize.
3. How does Tolstoy find faith? Explain in a paragraph, since there are a few steps he takes.
1. According to Hick, what are the two stages of human development, and which stage are we currently in? Also, can God accomplish the second stage for humans or not? Why, or why not?
2. According to Hick, how is God like a loving parent when it comes to human development? Explain!
3. What is Roy’s definition of truth? Include one of his examples in your answer.
4. How does Roy’s definition of truth relate to religious propositions? Make sure to include an explanation of his Venus-de-Milo example.
1. What is Hume’s point in his discussion of the architect at the beginning of the section of our reading? What is his main point, in light of what the rest of the article is about?
2. Hume thinks that an all-powerful and good God would have made humans better. According to Hume, what one improvement could God have made to get rid of most evil? How would it do this? (p.50ff)
3. According to Hume, how are human emotions (or “passions of the mind”) similar to other forces of nature with regard to the existence of evil? (p.51ff)
1. Paley compares finding a stone to finding a watch. What does the watch imply that the stone does not? For what reasons?
2. According to Paley, if the watch one finds self-replicates, does that mean the watch had no design or designer? Why, or why not?
3. Why does Paley compare an eye to a telescope? What is his main point, and how does he support it?
4. Starting on page 56, Paley starts addressing potential flaws in creation. If there are flaws in creation, does it mean the creator is also flawed? Why, or why not?
1. Philo thinks there is something wrong with Cleanthes’ argument. Explain what it is, using at least one of Philo’s examples. (3 sentences )
2. Why does Demea seem to reject Cleanthes’ argument, or more precisely, his kind of argument? (2 or 3 sentences)
3. According to Philo, how does the work and findings of astronomers compare to those of Cleanthes? (3 sentences)
1. When Pascal argues about gaining two lives, and then three, what is his main point? How does the number of lives gained change whether one bets?
2. Explain Kreeft’s argument regarding red chips and blue chips. What is his main point (conclusion), and how does he support it (premises)?
3. According to the authors, agnosticism seems impossible. Why do they think so, and do you agree? Make sure to first define “agnosticism.”
4. Does Pascal’s argument depend on human’s acting selfishly in order to believe in God? Why? What is Kreeft’s response to this accusation?
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