Learning outcomes and their relationship to your course level outcomes can be found on the Postgraduate vUWS site.
Learning outcomes for the unit are outlined below. Outcome
1 Explain the ways in which governments have attempted to structure health and community support services for older people and their families.
2 Analyse the impact of health and community support services for older people on national economies, public policy, health and community services, health staff, older people and their families.
3 Discuss the degree to which health and community support services for older people can evolve as complex, adaptive systems capable of self-organisation and co-operation.
4 Evaluate processes designed to enhance continuum in care – how these are funded, supported and managed.
5 Utilise theoretical models to analyse issues associated with reform agendas and policies focused on efficiency, effectiveness and productivity in aged care services, e.g change theory
6 Analyse the way that primary health care can be employed with older populations to enhance community capacity building and emancipation in health and community services.
Supporting Aged Communities
Policies in the healthcare departments have been changing daily. Behaviours of people have been changing and this affects their health and social well-being. The health of the elderly has been a key issue in every nation of the world. Thus, nations that value the health sector must take a keen interest on the health of the elderly (Murphy, 2012). These changing policies are very vital in a society, as they ensure an effective and a better way of delivering the best health care to the older people who are prone to health challenges. People in the health sector have to continue developing health models which take a keen interest in the health of the elderly. It is significant for the people in the health sector to consider much on how to change lifestyles of every cohort of life among individuals to ensure that their lives are impacted positively (Thomas, Jefferson, and Lasserson, 2013).
There is keen interest on every life age groups and the modes of taking care of the demographic cohort to continuously help people live positively. The interests of the elderly prove to be very key to every nation of the world. My topic of discussion will help people work and improve the health sector. Organisations dealing with health like the World Health Organisation (WHO) are keenly focusing on how to improve the health of the elderly. They have strategies and important moves aimed at improving health care delivery to the elderly (Writer, 2016). This essay will give a clear explanation an explanation of the healthy ageing model, a discussion and analysis of how aged care services are provided that support healthy ageing, an explanation of how aged care services have evolved and changed to meet the needs of older people and finally will summarise the ways of improving health of the elderly.
Based on the needs of the aged people, there ought to be an ageing model as given by WHO that sets up principles to be followed when dealing with this group of people. In this case, an ageing model is needed to set procedures that ought to be applied to ensure that these people stay healthy and have no challenges in their remaining part of live. Ethical principles, service programs and ways of reaching the services are well defined in the model. The ways of living are also well outlined including keeping physically fit.
Rowe and Kahn defined successful ageing as avoidance of disease and disability. However, they expanded their definition to include keeping physical and engagement of social and also productive activities. Generally, the ageing model is not well defined and future study is a necessity for clarity. However, ageing is dependent on all the aspects of the body, soul and the spirit of a man (Oudijk, Woittiez, & de Boer, 2011). Health ageing model shows resilience as the power and ability to keep, maintain or improve functionality in times of adversity. People may either do this through adaptation, resistance or recover from adversity. The health and ageing of a person are affected significantly by genes, the social activities they engage themselves in and the environment they live. It is also the capacity of a person to endure challenges and recover from adversities.
Religion is a set of beliefs, practices, rituals and faith based on a supernatural life and a divine God. These beliefs help a person to have hope in life and increase his/her lifespan. This is a good way to resist ageing for people without hope keeps worried in times of adversity reducing their lifespan. Spirituality is the personal will that makes someone to understand the issues of life in a personal way. They make one able to relate with the belief of the existence of a supernatural life. This is a very key factor in the ageing model of an individual (Koening et al. 2000, p.18-19)
The aspects of genetic makeup help a person to resist disease and biological changes. The inherent genetic makeup of an individual is very crucial for the survival and for the way such a person resists adversity. By chance and luck some people inherit resistance genes which make them able to cope with changing circumstances.
Positive spirituality is also another factor that influences the ageing model of an individual. This is an internalized individual relationship which is sacred that is never influenced by race, economics, ethnicity and neither class and improves the wellness and the welfare on a person as well as of the other. This is the greatest deep of intimacy with the supernatural. It consists of the aspects of religion and spirituality. Some religious beliefs have adverse mental and physical health. Spirituality may be hurting rather than helping people and this affects much the ageing model of an individual.
Coping with religion, psychological and physical health outcomes have adversely affected people and how people age. This is also a model of ageing affecting the lives of people. Improvement of health is determined by positive belief on a certain religion. Positive spirituality has been seen to promote health (Schluchter, Hack, Taylor, Drotar, Cartar, Andreias, & Klein, 2015). Old and traditional ways of doing things which were hurting have been replaced by modern methods of improving health. Cultures and beliefs have changed over time making people adapt to the changes. Religion has been a key propagate and a channel of teaching people on the important aspects of health. This is because spiritual leaders are mostly and freely accept by people in all races.
The ageing model focuses on the aspects of Religion, spirituality genetic inheritance and positive spirit. In these aspects, the inner person or the intrinsic factors seem to take much of the discussion (Lihong, 2013). Environmental factors that affect the life of an individual are centred on the resources and needs of the society, the relationship and interactive nature among the elderly and the changes that occur with people and places over time. These factors are key contributors to the ageing style of an individual. However, the abilities that help people cope with the challenges include; ability to move around, make, maintain and build strong relationships, meeting their own basic needs without dependency and ability to learn to grow and make sound decisions. This all revolves around the factors which the elderly take as a matter of priority which includes role, how possible it is for them to enjoy, relationships and issues of security (Macias, Hunicken, Sow, Guerrero, & Muñoz, 2009).
Generally, the ageing models affect the way people age. Moreover, the aged can be helped to improve their lives. People in the health sector have a lot to do to improve the lives of people. Analysis of how aged care services are provided that support healthy ageing. Support for the aged in Australia is centralized and are provided by a large number of Government agencies like commonwealth, the state and all other locals. Programs by the society also provide support for the elderly. Both private profitable and none profitable organizations also give a helping hand in support to the elderly (Hollander, Liu, & Chappell, 2009).
There are various ways involving the organization of aged care support and services as follows. Governments of New South Wales and Victoria provide a pension for people as early as at 65 years of age. This has made the aged dependent on themselves. Commonwealth also has helped these governments in paying pension for the elderly. Women from age 60 years also have been able to get pensions to help them in the day to day lives. Government Current support ensures that the Commonwealth is able to give acute medical and pharmaceutical services to the elderly in Australia. In addition, they have been giving monetary benefits which help to support the elderly (Fuster, 2014). The carers of the elderly also get support from the Commonwealth government. Generally, the Commonwealth provides the following to the ageing in Australia; pensions to the aged, assisting in rent and giving disability benefits, residential services, public housing, acute care among many other. Commonwealth also gives other support services that directly help the aged such as financial counselling, providing programs that promote health, giving rehabilitation services, retirement benefits for farmers and also educate the elderly on government programs. State and territories provide health facilities, housing and welfare services as well for the aged. They offer respite care for the aged, assistance to the carers, dementia programs, transportation, home help and senior’s cards for discount services.
The local or municipal government provide also specific services to the aged which are funded by Commonwealth. The services, however, are connected to the government for easy monitoring. They mostly help in coordinating the aged care services provided by the state and commonwealth. Support from non-Government Agencies is also active. As well as the government, there exist non-governmental organizations which also provide support services to the elderly. These organizations are run by the community and other charitable organizations. This sector funds from its resources 20% of the total cost of all welfare services (Froutan, Khankeh, & Mohammadi, 2013). The profit private sector also makes efforts to fund organizations for the elderly. This helps much in the social welfare that fund services for the elderly. The role of carers is noted since carers are the most important people in supporting the elderly in Australia. They play a very major role in helping the aged of which most of them are family and friends. They offer this willingly because the people may be relatives and morally the old are respected.
There is also community care such as the Commonwealth and the state government have enacted policies which take care of the elderly. This emphasizes much on taking care of the elderly and it’s taken keenly by everyone in Australia. The frail people are mostly on the emphasis of being taken care of by the government and all other agencies. Some of the community care organizations include; Home and Community Care Program (HACC), Community Aged Care Packages (CACPs) and Extended Aged Care at Home Program Pilot (EACH).
Effective organization for the aged is given to take care of health and disability issues. Health care is provided by the mainstream programs of the government such as government hospital systems, services offered by medical practitioners and pharmaceutical schemes. Australia has a Universal Health Care system which provides the aged with easy access to medical and healthcare services (Iliffe, et al. 2014). There are also community-rated insurance services aimed at helping the aged. The premiums charged are low to cater to the needs of the elderly. In general, the aged in Australia are well taken care of. The governments are very keen to take care of the aged citizens. Policies are well developed and instituted to take care of all the aged citizens of Australia. Every Government agencies and mostly commonwealth is keen on the interest of the elderly. This has made it easy for the states of Australia to make the elderly live longer.
The Commonwealth government takes Social security as one of the major responsibility. They help much in funding the Australia elderly people much in providing nursing home beds in high care places and hostel beds in low care places. However, it is only about 6% who live in these facilities. Moreover, this is the people prone and they need a lot of care. The costs for services of aged persons are normally catered for by the commonwealth government in Australia by covering a good portion of the cost (Windle, 2012). This depends on the financial position of the victim in need and this means one may end up paying something little for personal care, daily living and accommodation.
Health services for the aged have changed over time.