The Effects of Behavioral/Cognitive-Behavioral
The CDATE project coded studies of treatment/intervention programs in prison, jail,
probation, or parole settings reported from 1968 through 1996. Meta-analyses were conducted
on the 69 primary research studies on the effectiveness of behavioral and
cognitive-behavioral treatment in reducing recidivism for offenders. Results on this heterogeneous
collection of studies show that this treatment is associated with reduced
recidivism rates. However, this effect is mainly due to cognitive-behavioral interventions
rather than to standard behavior modification approaches. The specific types of programs
shown to be effective include cognitive-behavioral social skills development programs
and cognitive skills (Reasoning and Rehabilitation) programs.
In 1994 the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded the Correctional
Drug Abuse Treatment Effectiveness (CDATE) project for 4 years
to develop a database and conduct meta-analyses on correctional treatment
evaluation studies completed between January 1, 1968 and December 31,
1996. Researchers have, over the past 20 years, begun to use meta-analysis to
assess the research literature on corrections-based treatment programs.
Glass, McGaw, and Smith (1981, p. 21) distinguish primary analysis (the
original research study’s statistical analysis of data), secondary analysis (a
subsequent study’s reanalysis of the data from the original study, usually with
better statistical techniques or to ask new questions of the original data),
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