The English language has an information content of about 1.25 bits per character. Thus, when using the standard 8-bit ASCII encoding, about 6:75 bits per character are redundant.
Compute the probability that a random array of t bytes corresponds to English text.
Benny is a thief who tried to break into an Automated Teller Machine (ATM) using a screwdriver, but was only able to break five different keys on the numeric keypad and jam the card reader, at which point he heard Alice coming, so he hid. Alice walked up, put in her ATM card, successfully entered her 4-digit PIN, and took some cash. But she was not able to get her card back, so she drove off to find help. Benny then went back to the ATM, and started entering numbers to try to discover Alice’s PIN and steal money from her account. What is the worst-case number of PINs that Benny has to enter before correctly discovering Alice’s PIN?
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